Old Kingdom of Egypt

The Old Kingdom Period of ancient Egypt was the first high point of the civilization in the Nile Valley. The Old Kingdom is often classified as the time frame from the 3rd Dynasty to the 6th Dynasty, or c. 2686 BC – 2181 BC. Following the Old Kingdom Period was the first period of disorder and calamity, known as the First Intermediate Period. The influence of Pharaoh Djoser and his vizier, Imhotep, is credited for the unique Egyptian architecture known as pyramids. During the Old Kingdom, many pyramids were constructed to be designated as royal burial places. For this reason, many scholars regard the Old Kingdom Period as the Age of the Pyramids.

Old Kingdom of Egypt Timeline (c. 2686 BC–c. 2181 BC)

2690 BC Khasekhem-statue-smallPharaoh Khasekhemwy lays to rest the violent disputes of the 2nd Dynasty and unites northern and southern Egypt.
2670 BC King-Djoser-of-Egypt small3rd Dynasty begins with Djoser, whose Horus name was Netjerikhet. Though most historians agree that Djoser was the first pharaoh of the 3rd Dynasty, some believe that Necherophes or Nebka preceded Djoser (Manetho, Turin & Abydos King Lists, respectively)
2667 – 2648 BC Imhotep, Djoser’s vizier, publishes medical documents detailing the diagnosis and cure of 200 diseases.
2650 – 2625 BC Saqqara_stepped_pyramid-smallImhotep, Ra high priest at Heliopolis and Djoser’s chancellor, builds a pyramid (or, the Step Pyramid) at Saqqara, the necropolis of Memphis, for Djoser.
2625 BC maidum-step-pyramid-smallHuni becomes pharaoh and begins construction of the Maidum step pyramid, which was finished by his successor, Sneferu.
2613 BC Red_pyramid-of-Dahshur-smallThe 4th Dynasty begins with Sneferu. In his reign, he builds in Dahshur the first straight-side pyramid, known as the Red Pyramid.
2589 BC Sneferu passes away and Khufu (Cheops) begins his reign. Other than having the Great Pyramid of Giza built, not much as documented about him and his reign.
2584 BC Khufu/Cheops has his vizier, Hemon/Hemiunu, begin building the Great Pyramid of Giza.
2558 BC Khafra, son of Khufu, becomes ruler. Not much was written about him other than that he was said to be cruel and heretical.
2558 – 2532 BC Giza_Sphinx_small The Sphinx is built for pharaoh Khafra sometime during his reign. He also built the second largest pyramid of Giza.
2532 BC Khafra_statueKhafra passes away.
2494 BC The 5th Dynasty begins with Userkaf. He began the custom of building sun temples at Abusir. During his life he also built the Pyramid of Userkaf complex at Saqqara.
2375 BC Pyramid-of-Unas-75 Unas, last ruler of the 5th Dynasty, reigns as pharaoh. Manetho wrote that he probably had no sons when he passed away.
2345 BC the 6th Dynasty begins with Teti. His reign was said to have lasted about 12 years.
2333 BC Teti passes away and Userkare becomes pharaoh. It was said that Userkare opposed his predecessor and possibly usurped the throne. On the contrary, he may well have been Teti’s son but this is uncertain.
2332 BC Pepi-I-Meryre-statue-smallPepi I, son of Teti, becomes ruler. He was able to do so with the support of powerful influence in Upper Egypt. He was able to dethrone his brother, the usurper Userkare who had murdered his father.
2283 BC Pepi I passes away and is buried in a pyramid in South Saqqar.

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