1 Chronicles Chapter 24 is about the division of the priests and of the Levites, which continues off from the previous chapter where David turns the kingdom over to his son, Solomon.
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The Lineage of Aaron
The sons of Aaron were Abihu, Nadab, Eleazar and Ithamar. However, Abihu and Nadab died before Aaron did, and they both had no children. Eleazar and Ithamar were the ones left who ministered to the people of Israel as priests. Then David, with the sons of Eleazar, divided them according the schedule of service that they were to be appointed in the temple.
The Sons of Eleazar
Among the sons of Eleazar, there were found to be a lot of leaders, more than those with Ithamar. Therefore, the work and the schedule had to be divided among them. The sons of Eleazar were 16 heads in the house of their father. Eight of these were the sons of Ithamar.
They were then divided by casting lots and were grouped among each other. Some of them were officials for the sanctuary, which was the house of God. The scribe, who was the son of one of the Levites, named Nethanel, recorded everything that the king had ordered.
Grouping by Lots
The first lot was given to Jehoiarib, followed by Jedaiah, Harim, Seorim then Malchijah. The sixth lot went to Mijamin, then to Hakkoz, and then Abijah. Then the ninth lot went to Jeshua, followed by Shecaniah, Eliashib, and Jakim. Huppah received the 13th lot, followed by Jeshebeab, then Bilgah, and Immer.
The lot which was the 17th went to Hezir, then Happizzez, and Pethahiah, who was followed by Jehezekel. Jachin received the 21st lot, then Gamul the22nd, then Delaiah, and the last lot went to Maaziah. They were given the schedule of service for the house of the Lord under the ordinance which was by the hand of Aaron, as this was what the Lord had commanded Israel.
1 Chronicles 24 (King James Version)
1 Now these are the divisions of the sons of Aaron. The sons of Aaron; Nadab, and Abihu, Eleazar, and Ithamar.
2 But Nadab and Abihu died before their father, and had no children: therefore Eleazar and Ithamar executed the priest’s office.
3 And David distributed them, both Zadok of the sons of Eleazar, and Ahimelech of the sons of Ithamar, according to their offices in their service.
4 And there were more chief men found of the sons of Eleazar than of the sons of Ithamar; and thus were they divided. Among the sons of Eleazar there were sixteen chief men of the house of their fathers, and eight among the sons of Ithamar according to the house of their fathers.
5 Thus were they divided by lot, one sort with another; for the governors of the sanctuary, and governors of the house of God, were of the sons of Eleazar, and of the sons of Ithamar.
6 And Shemaiah the son of Nethaneel the scribe, one of the Levites, wrote them before the king, and the princes, and Zadok the priest, and Ahimelech the son of Abiathar, and before the chief of the fathers of the priests and Levites: one principal household being taken for Eleazar, and one taken for Ithamar.
7 Now the first lot came forth to Jehoiarib, the second to Jedaiah,
8 The third to Harim, the fourth to Seorim,
9 The fifth to Malchijah, the sixth to Mijamin,
10 The seventh to Hakkoz, the eighth to Abijah,
11 The ninth to Jeshua, the tenth to Shecaniah,
12 The eleventh to Eliashib, the twelfth to Jakim,
13 The thirteenth to Huppah, the fourteenth to Jeshebeab,
14 The fifteenth to Bilgah, the sixteenth to Immer,
15 The seventeenth to Hezir, the eighteenth to Aphses,
16 The nineteenth to Pethahiah, the twentieth to Jehezekel,
17 The one and twentieth to Jachin, the two and twentieth to Gamul,
18 The three and twentieth to Delaiah, the four and twentieth to Maaziah.
19 These were the orderings of them in their service to come into the house of the LORD, according to their manner, under Aaron their father, as the LORD God of Israel had commanded him.
20 And the rest of the sons of Levi were these: Of the sons of Amram; Shubael: of the sons of Shubael; Jehdeiah.
21 Concerning Rehabiah: of the sons of Rehabiah, the first was Isshiah.
22 Of the Izharites; Shelomoth: of the sons of Shelomoth; Jahath.
23 And the sons of Hebron; Jeriah the first, Amariah the second, Jahaziel the third, Jekameam the fourth.
24 Of the sons of Uzziel; Michah: of the sons of Michah; Shamir.
25 The brother of Michah was Isshiah: of the sons of Isshiah; Zechariah.
26 The sons of Merari were Mahli and Mushi: the sons of Jaaziah; Beno.
27 The sons of Merari by Jaaziah; Beno, and Shoham, and Zaccur, and Ibri.
28 Of Mahli came Eleazar, who had no sons.
29 Concerning Kish: the son of Kish was Jerahmeel.
30 The sons also of Mushi; Mahli, and Eder, and Jerimoth. These were the sons of the Levites after the house of their fathers.
31 These likewise cast lots over against their brethren the sons of Aaron in the presence of David the king, and Zadok, and Ahimelech, and the chief of the fathers of the priests and Levites, even the principal fathers over against their younger brethren.