Two sides before the war broke out in mid-1750s:
Great Britain, Prussia, Portugal, with allies
France, Spain, Austria, Russia, Sweden with allies
Photo by: Wikipedia Creative Commons
The 1763 Treaty of Paris brought about the end of the French and Indian War and the Seven Years’ War, resulting in peace between Great Britain, Spain, and France. The treaty settled several questions regarding territories and colonies in the Americas.
The treaty was signed in Paris on February 10, 1763 by representatives of Great Britain, Spain, and France. In addition, Portugal agreed to the treaty terms but it did not include Prussia or Austria. British victories over both Spain and France made the treaty possible and settled numerous disputes between the various nations.
As part of the 1763 Treaty of Paris, France ceded all French territory east of the Mississippi River to Great Britain. France retained territory west of the river. The one exception to this was the city of New Orleans, which remained in French control. This negated a previous secret agreement between France and Spain in 1762 granting Louisiana to Spain.
While France ceded all French Canadian territories to Britain, specific provisions for French citizens living in Canada were included in the treaty. Under Article IV, French residents were granted unrestricted emigration for 18 months as long as properties were sold to British subjects. France kept fishing rights off the coast of Newfoundland and retained the islands of Miquelon and Saint Pierre.
A significant source of strife between France and Great Britain was the fortifications around Dunkirk. Under the 1763 Treaty of Paris, France was forced to adhere prior terms agreed to under the Treaty of Ultrecht signed in 1713 in which France had agreed to significant limits on the Dunkirk fortifications. With this new agreement, Great Britain’s concerns that France could use Dunkirk as a staging ground for an invasion of Great Britain were alleviated.
Several additional questions of territorial control were also addressed in the 1763 Treaty of Paris. Many of the territories captured by Great Britain, France, or Spain during the preceding years were returned to the original nation. France restored trading posts in Sumatra and Minorca to Great Britain. Spain restored Colonia del Sacramento in South America to Portugal along with the fortress of Almeida. Great Britain returned Manila and Havana to Spain while Spain granted Florida to Great Britain. Great Britain also returned Guadaloupe, Saint Lucia, Goree, Martinique, and Indian trading posts to France. However, France ceded Dominica, Saint Vincent, the Grenadines, Grenada, and Tobago to Great Britain along with the additional grants of Louisiana and Canada.
In addition to the territorial agreements, additional components of the 1763 Treaty of Paris settled various sources of conflict between the nations. Under the agreement, Great Britain pledged to allow its new citizens to practice Catholicism. France acknowledged British clients as rulers of specific Indian states while also committing to not sending soldiers to Bengal. Great Britain agreed to destroy defenses in British Honduras but retained control of a colony dedicated to cutting logwood.
Following the 1763 Treaty of Paris, Great Britain became the acknowledged leader of a global empire. While many territories gained during the wars were returned to the original owner, the gains made by Great Britain were significant enough to mark the beginning of British dominance around the world.