Middle Kingdom of Egypt

Following the First Intermediate Period was the Middle Kingdom Period, spanning from the 11th to part of the 13th Dynasties (some historians consider even the 14th Dynasty part of the Middle Kingdom). During this time, the dominant religion of Egypt was the cult of Osiris.

Middle Kingdom of Egypt Timeline (c. 2055-1700 B.C.)

2040 BC Mentuhotep_Statue_smallNebhepetre Mentuhotep II wins the civil war, reunites Egypt, makes Thebes the capital of all Egypt, establishes the 11th dynasty and builds the mortuary complex of Deir el Bahri
2010 BC Mentuhotep II dies and is succeeded by Mentuhotep III, who was already quite old after his father’s 51-year reign. Despite this, Mentuhotep III was able to explore to Punt and innovate new architecture.
   
2000 BC Obelisk-at-Luxor-smallThe first obelisks are erected at Heliopolis (Cairo), the site of the cult of Ra/Atum
1991 BC Amenemhet_I_from_El-Lisht_by_John_Campana-small Amenemhet I rises to power (beginning the 12th Dynasty), probably by overthrowing Mentuhotep IV. He relocates the capital from Thebes to Itjtawy, south of Memphis. He has a pyramid built there and constructs the Wall of the Ruler in the Sinai region
1975 BC Amenemhet builds the pyramid of Hawara with its labyrinth
   
1962 BC Senusret I succeeds Amenemhet. During his reign he continues his father’s aggressive expansion policies
   
1900 BC La_Tombe_de_Horemheb_small Ceremonies honoring Osiris and his mysteries are held in Abydos, recounting the passing and resurrection of the deity
1844 BC Statue-of-Amenemhet-III-in-Louvre-sqAmenemhet III comes to reign. His rule is considered the golden age of the Middle Kingdom Period. He constructs the Labyrinth at Harawa
1797 BC Amenemhet III passes away and 12th Dynasty starts declining
   
1800 BC Kahun-Gynecological-Papyrus-small The Kahun Gynecological Papyrus deals with women’s health and contraception
1720 BC Egypt starts to fracture politically. Many local dynasties are establishing, one of which is a West-Semitic speaking Syro-Canaanite dynasty in the delta area which would eventually conquer southward, thanks to the unstable political situation. They eventually become the Hyksos (15th) Dynasty that rules Ancient Egypt.
   
1700 BC The Kingdom of Kush is established south of Egypt
   

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